American Nurseryman Magazine - Horticulture Magazine and Horticulture Books - Asian longhorned beetle eradicated in N.J., Canada - May, 2013 - DEPARTMENTS

American Nurseryman Magazine - Horticulture Magazine and Horticulture Books - May, 2013

DEPARTMENTS

Plant Health: Asian longhorned beetle eradicated in N.J., Canada

Anoplophora glabripennis - Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) - has been a troubling pest since its discovery in the U.S. in 1996. The good news, though, is that APHIS has recently declared Anoplophora glabripennis "absent: eradicated from New Jersey."

According to APHIS, the agency "is declaring eradication of the Asian longhorned beetle in Middlesex and Union Counties, New Jersey, thereby releasing them from quarantine. Since 2004, APHIS has worked with its State partners to complete extensive survey, control, and regulatory activities in these areas to eradicate ALB from New Jersey."

Asian longhorned beetle

Asian longhorned beetle
Photo courtesy of Karen Snover-Clift, Cornell University; Bugwood.org

Officially, "APHIS determined that these counties can be removed from quarantine after program efforts resulted in three years of negative surveys of host plants within the regulated areas. The Federal Order immediately rescinds the regulated area in Middlesex and Union Counties, N.J., for ALB. As a result of this action, there are no remaining ALB regulated areas in New Jersey."

First positively identified in Brooklyn, N.Y., the invasive beetle appeared in the greater Chicagoland area in 1998, where it posed a potential threat to 90,000 acres of forest preserve in Cook and DuPage Counties and 500,000 trees lining the streets of the city before being declared eradicated in 2008. It also settled into Hudson, Middlesex and Union Counties in New Jersey (eradication was declared in Hudson County in 2008), and Worcester and Suffolk Counties in Massachussetts.

Most recently, the beast has been identified in Clermont County, Ohio. According to hungrypests.com, a fabulous interactive web site hosted by the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), ALB is still active in areas of New York, Ohio and Massachusetts.

As for our friends to the North, Canada's Food Inspection Service has declared "successful eradication of the Asian Long-horned Beetle (ALHB) in the Ontario cities of Toronto and Vaughan, and thereby repealing the Asian Long-horned Beetle Infested Place Order defining the regulated area for ALHB. The successful eradication of ALHB is based on five (5) years (2007-2012) of negative survey results within the ALHB regulated area." This repeal means that movement of tree materials from the previously regulated areas now is unrestricted. Even better, the agency claims that under its standards, "ALHB is now considered eradicated from Canada."

Brown spruce longhorned beetle in Nova Scotia

Tetropium fuscum - brown spruce longhorned beetle (BSLB) - is relatively well-behaved in its native Europe and Asia, feasting primarily on trees compromised by disease or already dead. But once the bug was delivered to Halifax, Nova Scotia, in wooden packing material in the late 1980s, it found the area's healthy trees much to its liking. And unfortunately for Canadian trees, the Forestry Division of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency has recently expanded its containment order.

Trapping surveys have detected the beetle in 93 locations outside of the original containment area (identified in 2007), and the order now includes the counties of Halifax, Hants, Lunenburg, Kings, Colchester, Cumberland, Pictou, Guysborough, Antigonish, Victoria, and Richmond, as well as the Kouchibouguac National Park in New Brunswick.

Brown spruce longhorned beetle

Brown spruce longhorned beetle
Photo courtesy of Georgette Smith, Canadian Forest Service; Bugwood.org

BSLB feeds mainly on spruce, but also attacks fir, pine and larch species. Damage is the result of larval tunneling. The pest also has been associated with a new wood stain fungus, Ophiostoma tetropii, in North America.

To date, no positive identifications have been made in the U.S. But because BSLB is believed to migrate via the movement of wood materials, it's good to keep a keen eye on stock. Symptoms include resin on the bark; round or oval exit holes, about 4 mm in diameter; frass-filled galleries beneath the bark; and L-shaped galleries that penetrate the xylem.