Effective June 1, the European Union will essentially prohibit over 160 species of plants from being imported into the E.U. countries. Seeds, fruits and vegetables are not affected.

The rationale behind the E.U. decision is its strong concern about the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, recently found in southern Italy to be killing olive trees. Xylella fastidiosa is the bacterium which causes leaf scorch, known in the U.S. for many years. It is also the cause of Pierce’s disease in grapes and citrus. X. fastidiosa is spread by a variety of insect vectors. There are a number of subspecies and genotypes of X. fastidiosa, but it is an emerging disease and scientific information is still evolving about hosts. The E.U.’s Decision and Scientific Opinion are relying on very conservative measures in an attempt to prevent further import or spread of the disease in the E.U. countries

Over 160 species of plants for planting, except seeds, across 27 genera will be affected.  This measure will not affect seeds, fruits or vegetables.  Essentially, the more than 160 species of plants for planting will be prohibited from being exported to the E.U. from the United States.  All third country trading partners and E.U. member states will also be affected by the decision.

APHIS may be requested to ask for recognition of “pest free areas,” but given the presumed distribution in North America, success in establishing any pest free areas is deemed unlikely. The European Commission’s emergency measures provide detailed guidance for establishing pest free areas, requesting derogations, eradication criteria, and containment criteria.

APHIS also determined the number of Phytosanitary Certificates issued for plants for planting of the subject species since 2012 to determine the potential impact to U.S. industry.  The list is available here.

List of plants known to be susceptible to the European and non-European isolates of the specified organism [Xylella fastidiosa](‘specified plants’)

Acacia longifolia – an Acacia native to Australia

Acacia saligna (Labill.) – oojong, golden wreath wattle, Australia native

Acer – maple

Aesculus – buckeye, horsechestnut

Agrostis gigantea – bentgrass

Albizia julibrissin – Persian silktree, bastard tamarind

Alnus rhombifolia  – white alder

Alternanthera tenella Colla- Alternanthera (a flowering plant)

Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson – matweed

Ambrosia acanthicarpa Hook.- an herb

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. – ragweed

Ambrosia trifida L. – giant ragweed

Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne – peppervine (close cousin of grape)

Ampelopsis cordata Michx. – heartleaf peppervine

Artemisia douglasiana Hook. – California mugwort, an herb

Artemisia vulgaris var. heterophylla (H.M. Hall & Clements) Jepson – common wormwood

Avena fatua L.- wild oat

Baccharis halimifolia L. – groundsel tree or shrub

Baccharis pilularis DC. – coyote brush

Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) – a shrub

Bidens pilosa L. – in the aster family

Brachiaria decumbens (Stapf) – signal grass

Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) Hitchc. – Alexander grass

Brassica – cabbage, kale, etc. etc.

Bromus diandrus Roth – great brome

Callicarpa americana L. – American beautyberry

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. – shepherd’s purse

Carex – sedges

Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch – Pecan hickory

Cassia tora (L.) Roxb. – sickle senna, coffee pod

Catharanthus – periwinkle

Celastrus orbiculata Thunb. – Oriental bittersweet

Celtis occidentalis L. – common hackberry

Cenchrus echinatus L. – southern sandspur, a grass

Cercis canadensis L. – Eastern redbud

Cercis occidentalis Torr. – Western redbud

Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene – an annual legume

Chenopodium quinoa Willd. – a grain crop

Chionanthus – fringetree

Chitalpa tashkinensis T. S. Elias & Wisura – hybrid of desert willow/Southern Catalpa

Citrus

Coelorachis cylindrica (Michx.) Nash – cylinder jointed grass, Carolina jointgrass, etc.

Coffea – coffee

Commelina benghalensis L. – wandering jew, Benghal dayflower

Conium maculatum L. – hemlock, poison hemlock

Convolvulus arvensis L. – bindweed

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist – horseweed, Canadian fleabane

Cornus florida L. – flowering dogwood

Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm. – lesser swinecress

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. – Bermuda grass, devil’s grass

Cyperus eragrostis Lam. – tall flatsedge, nutgrass, etc.

Cyperus esculentus L. – chufa sedge, yellow nutgrass, etc.

Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link – Scotch broom

Datura wrightii Regel – sacred datura

Digitaria horizontalis Willd.- crabgrass

Digitaria insularis (L.) Ekman – sourgrass

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. – hairy crabgrass, large crabgrass, etc.

Disphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants – wormseed, Jesuit’s tea, Mexican tea

Duranta erecta L. – golden dewdrop, pigeonberry

Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. – cookspur, millet

Encelia farinosa A. Gray ex Torr – brittlebush.

Eriochloa contracta Hitchc.- prairie cupgrass

Erodium  – a genus of the family Geraniaceae

Escallonia montevidensis Link & Otto – an evergreen shrub

Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. – River Red gum

Eucalyptus globulus Labill. – blue gum, Southern blue gum

Eugenia myrtifolia Sims – brush cherry

Euphorbia hirta L. – asthma plant

Fagus crenata Blume – Japanese beech

Ficus carica L. – common fig

Fragaria vesca L. – wild strawberry

Fraxinus americana L.- white ash

Fraxinus dipetala Hook. & Arn. – California ash, flowering ash

Fraxinus latifolia Benth. – Oregon ash

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall – green ash, red ash

Fuchsia magellanica Lam.- hummingbird fuchsia, hardy fuchsia

Genista monspessulana (L.) L. A. S. Johnson – French broom

Geranium dissectum L. – cut-leaved cranesbill

Ginkgo biloba L. – Ginkgo

Gleditsia triacanthos L. – honey locust

Hedera helix- ivy, English ivy

Helianthus annuus L. – common sunflower

Hemerocallis – daylily

Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindl.) M. Roem.-  toyon

Hibiscus schizopetalus (Masters) J.D. Hooker – fringed rosemallow, Japanese lantern

Hibiscus syriacus L. – Rose of Sharon

Hordeum murinum L – wall barley, false barley.

Hydrangea paniculata Siebold – panicle hydrangea

Ilex vomitoria Sol. ex Aiton – yaupon holly

Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth – common morning glory

Iva annua L. – marshelder, sumpweed

Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don – Jacaranda

Juglans – walnut

Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz – post cedar, mountain cedar, blueberry juniper

Koelreuteria bipinnata Franch. – Chinese flower tree

Lactuca serriola L.- prickly lettuce, milk thistle, compass plant

Lagerstroemia indica L. – crapemyrtle

Lavandula dentata L. – French lavender

Ligustrum lucidum L.- Chinese privet

Lippia nodiflora (L.) Greene – frogfruit, turkey tangle

Liquidambar styraciflua L. – sweetgum

Liriodendron tulipifera L. – tulip tree

Lolium perenne L. – winter ryegrass

Lonicera japonica (L.) Thunb. – Japanese honeysuckle

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet – large flower primrose willow

Lupinus aridorum McFarlin ex Beckner – scrub lupine

Lupinus villosus Willd. – lady lupine

Magnolia grandiflora L.- Southern magnolia

Malva  – mallow

Marrubium vulgare L. –  white horehound

Medicago polymorpha L. – California burclover

Medicago sativa L. – lucerne

Melilotus  – sweet clover

Melissa officinalis L. – lemon balm, balm mint

Metrosideros – a shrub/tree

Modiola caroliniana (L.) G. Don – Caroline bristlemallow

Montia linearis (Hook.) Greene – narrowleaf miner’s lettuce

Morus – mulberry

Myrtus communis L.- common myrtle

Nandina domestica Murray -heavenly bamboo

Neptunia lutea (Leavenw.) Benth. – yellow puff (a vine)

Nerium oleander L.  – oleander

Nicotiana glauca Graham – tree tobacco

Olea europaea L. – olive tree

Origanum majorana L. – marjoram

Paspalum dilatatum Poir. – dallis grass, sticky heads

Persea americana Mill. – avocado

Phoenix reclinata Jacq. – wild date palm

Phoenix roebelenii O’Brien – pygmy date palm

Pinus taeda L. – loblolly pine

Pistacia vera L. – pistachio

Plantago lanceolata L. – English plantain

Platanus – plane tree, sycamore

Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. – sweetscent, saltmarsh fleabane (aster family)

Poa annua L. – annual bluegrass

Polygala myrtifolia L.- an evergreen

Polygonum arenastrum Boreau – common knotweed

Polygonum lapathifolium (L.) Delarbre – curlytop knotweed

Polygonum persicaria Gray – spotted ladysthumb

Populus fremontii S. Watson – Alamo cottonwood

Portulaca –

Prunus – plum, peach, cherries, etc.

Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai – (Asian pear)

Quercus – oak

Ranunculus repens L. – creeping buttercup

Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Wooton & Standl.- upright Prairie Cornflower, Mexican Hat

Rhamnus alaternus L – Italian buckthorn

Rhus diversiloba Torr. & A. Gray – Western poison oak

Rosa californica Cham. & Schldl.- California wild rose

Rosmarinus officinalis L. – rosemary

Rubus – raspberries, blueberries, etc.

Rumex crispus L. – curly dock

Salix-willow

Salsola tragus L. – prickly Russian thistle

Salvia mellifera Greene – Black sage

Sambucus – elder, elderberry

Sapindus saponaria L. – wingleaf soapberry

Schinus molle L. – American pepper

Senecio vulgaris L. – common groundsel

Setaria magna Griseb.- giant bristlegrass

Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.- milk thistle

Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C. K. Schneid. – jojoba, pignut

Sisymbrium irio L. – London rocker

Solanum americanum Mill. – American nightshade

Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. – silverleaf nightshade

Solidago virgaurea L. – European goldenrod

Sonchus – sow thistle

Sorghum

Spartium junceum L.- Spanish broom

Spermacoce latifolia Aubl. – oval leaf false buttonweed

Stellaria media (L.) Vill. – common chickweed

Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. – Spanish moss

Toxicodendron diversilobum (Torr. & A. Gray) Greene – Pacific poison oak

Trifolium repens L.- white clover

Ulmus americana L. – American elm

Ulmus crassifolia Nutt. – Texas cedar elm

Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt. – a hardwood tree

Urtica dioica L. – common nettle, stinging nettle

Urtica urens L. – annual nettle

Vaccinium – (cranberry, blueberry, etc.)

Verbena litoralis Kunth – seashore vervain

Veronica – (the entire genus)

Vicia faba L. – fava bean

Vinca

Vitis – grapevines

Westringia fruticosa (Willd.) Druce – coastal rosemary

Xanthium spinosum L. – spiny cocklebur (aster family)

Xanthium strumarium L. – rough cocklebur (aster family)

List of plants known to be susceptible to the European isolates of the specified organism (‘host plants’)

Acacia saligna (Labill.) Wendl.- oojong, golden wreathwattle, etc.

Catharanthus – periwinkle

Myrtus communis L. – common myrtle

Nerium oleander L. – oleander

Olea europaea L. – olive tree

Polygala myrtifolia L – shrub, myrtleleaf milkwort.

Prunus avium (L.) L. – wild cherry

Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb – sweet almond

Rhamnus alaternus L. – Italian buckthorn

Rosmarinus officinalis L. – rosemary

Spartium junceum L. – Spanish broom

Vinca

Westringia fruticosa (Willd.) Druce – shrub, coastal rosemary